THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION: New Methods for a New Era
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WHERE DID IT COME FROM?
We already learned the Capitalist philosophy fostered the growth of a bourgeoisie class. But along with this merchant class, also known as burghers, arose the Industrial class. While the Industrial Revolution ultimately reached most of the world with strongholds in most countries, the test will focus mostly on Britain. Why? Though the Industrialization spread more rapidly then wildfire, most of the developments occurred in Britain first, thus the emphasis.

The Industrial Revolution is a term often applied to, in fact, two revolutions: the Agricultural Revolution and the Industrial Revolution. While the first one looses some glory by the fame (or notoriety) of the latter, it is equally important.


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THE AGRICULTURAL REVOLUTION
The Agricultural Revolution resulted in a food surplus, not unlike the original agricultural revolution which allowed civilization to develop. New techniques of cultivating land such as the crop rotation (different from the three field system which lead one-third of the land uncultivated) allowed more surplus, but also the introduction of new high yield crops, such as potatoes, corn, cassava, etc.,from the “new world”, courtesy of the Columbian Exchange, allowed even more food to go around. Furthermore, enclosure allowed formerly public lands that were shared during the Middle Ages were enclosed by fences and sectioned for private farming and private gain (a prime example of capitalism at work). In addition to these embellishments of farming, new machinery and tools were developed. Plowing, seeding, reaping were all revolutionized, and chemical fertilizers allowed even more product, maximizing the productivity of the land, employing less people, created an immense surplus of food and people. So these people traveled to the cities, resulting in a drastic increase of Urbanization. As in the agricultural revolution of the Neolithic age, more people had more time to do stuff, and soon new tools and techniques were developed in what we call the Industrial Revolution.

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THE INVENTIONS
The invention that arguably started it all was the Flying Shuttle, a machine invented in 1733 by John Kay which sped up the weaving process. In 1794, John Hargreaves invented the Spinning Jenny, a machine which spun large amounts of thread, and later R. Arkwright and Edward Cartright added water power to both of these machines, even further maximizing efficiency. Soon water power dominated all the textile machines, and when in 1793 Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, massive amounts of cotton were able to be processed rapidly. Of all the machines developed, however, by far the most significant one was the Steam Engine, developed in 1769 by James Watt who improved upon an earlier model by Thomas Newcomer. This not only provide energy, but paved the way for later inventions to use steam for transportation, which took off when in 1807 Robert Fulton built the first Steamship and in the 1820s when George Stephenson built the first Steam powered locomotive. Both of these modes of transportation really allowed Britain’s colonizing capacity to increase dramatically, and the fuel for the steam engine, coal, was readily available in Britain, allowing it to quickly become one of the most powerful European nations. Later, even more technological advancements occurred which molded the society which we now live in. Among these were:


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· The Telegraph- Invented in 1837 by Samuel Morse,andallowedpeopletocommunicate quickly across large distances

· The Telephone- Invented in 1876 by Alexander G. Bell

· The Radio- invented in the 1890s by Marconi Guglielmo

· The Light bulb- invented in 1879 by Thomas Edison

· The Internal combustion Engine- invented in 1885 by GottliebDaimler, and is now used in cars and manymotorvehicles

· The Airplane – invented in 1903 by The Wright brothers, and drastically decreasedTravel time.


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Even other significant developments were made, especially in medicine and science. To give you an idea, vaccinations, pasteurizations, x rays, were all developed and Charles Darwin finalized the concept of natural selection. You don’t need to know who invented what and when, but make sure to be familiar with at least some of the inventions listed above, and make sure to know the Steam Engine was developed, and how these inventions increased production and efficiency, key counterparts of the Industrial Revolution.


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The Factory System
As the machinery used in agriculture, textiles, and transportation increased in efficiency, new methods were developed to create these machines with maximum efficiency. Interchangeable parts, a system used by Eli Whitney, allowed machines and their parts to be made uniformly so only a portion had to be replaced when something malfunctioned. Later, Henry Ford used the assembly line, a method where each factory worker added only one part to a finished product one after another after another. These developments in manufacturing greatly increased productivity, but although they revolutionized factories, they did have some ramifications, especially socially. With the new methods of manufacturing came a new demand for workers, and the fact that the workers were intensely overworked, terribly underpaid, and without any insurance or protection added to the inexpensiveness of the system. Children as young as six and people all the way to their middle aged years would work an average 16 hour workday, women too worked long hours at drastically decreased pay compared to men’s earnings, in addition to having to maintain their tradition roles as homemaker.


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The Change
Initially, the labor force was drawn from young, unmarried women who would work in factories until they were married or could return to their families. Soon, however, as the machines grew heavier and more dangerous, the women were displaced. While some women remained, the new workforce was mostly children and young men, with some older and middle aged workers trying to find an income. Before the Industrial Revolution, men frequently worked in shops or farms adjacent to the house, but as factories became commonplace, the separation between work and home grew, and with that the separation between man and woman.